# An Hα survey of the host environments of 77 type IIn supernovae within z < 0.02

Ransome, C, Habergham Mawson, S, Darnley, MJ, James, PA and Percival, SM (2022) An Hα survey of the host environments of 77 type IIn supernovae within z < 0.02. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 513 (3). pp. 3564-3576. ISSN 0035-8711

 Preview
Text
An Hα survey of the host environments of 77 type IIn supernovae within.pdf - Published Version

Type IIn supernovae (SNe\,IIn) are an uncommon and highly heterogeneous class of SN where the SN ejecta interact with pre-existing circumstellar media (CSM). Previous studies have found a mass ladder in terms of the association of the SN location with H$\alpha$ emission and the progenitor masses of SN classes. In this paper, we present the largest environmental study of SNe\,IIn. We analyse the H$\alpha$ environments of 77 type IIn supernovae using continuum subtracted H$\alpha$ images. We use the pixel statistics technique, normalised cumulative ranking (NCR), to associate SN pixels with H$\alpha$ emission. We find that our 77 SNe\,IIn do not follow the H$\alpha$ emission. This is not consistent with the proposed progenitors of SNe\,IIn, luminous blue variables (LBVs) as LBVs are high mass stars that undergo dramatic episodic mass loss. However, a subset of the NCR values follow the H$\alpha$ emission, suggesting a population of high mass progenitors. This suggests there may be multiple progenitor paths with $\sim$60\% having non-zero NCR values with a distribution consistent with high mass progenitors such as LBVs and $\sim$40\% of these SNe not being associated with H$\alpha$ emission. We discuss the possible progenitor routes of SNe\,IIn, especially for the zero NCR value population. We also investigate the radial distribution of the SNe in their hosts in terms of H$\alpha$ and $r'$-band flux.