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Improving the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Cold Bitumen Emulsion Mixtures Using Waste Products and Microwave Heating Energy

Al-Busaltan, S, Dulaimi, A, Al-Nageim, H, Mahmood, S, Kadhim, MA, Al-Kafaji, M and Özkılıç, YO (2023) Improving the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Cold Bitumen Emulsion Mixtures Using Waste Products and Microwave Heating Energy. Buildings, 13 (2).

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Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13020414 (published)


Scientists have effectively demonstrated that the introduction of a waste product comprising cementitious chemical compositions can enhance the mechanical properties and durability of cold bitumen emulsion mixes (CBEMs). On the other hand, the high air void content of the CBEM mix remains a challenge that is considered unsatisfactory by paving engineers. As a result, this investigation highlights two major changes that were made. The first is the use of waste paper sludge ash (PSA) as a filler in CBEM instead of the conventional mineral filler (CMF). The second change was made to further improve the mixture by reducing the amount of CBEM air voids using microwave (MW) heating energy as a post-treatment method. When compared to typical hot mix asphalt (HMA), the new CBEMs showed great mechanical properties and durability. Moreover, the proposed method, using CBEMs, has lower environmental risks, is safer, and is more cost-effective than existing paving mix technologies. This study presents a method for controlling air voids within pavement specifications without affecting mechanical behaviour or generating additional environmental or economic considerations. When compared to typical mixtures, laboratory test results showed that MW-heating can enhance both the stiffness modulus and the air void content. Furthermore, these results revealed a minor reduction in creep stiffness and water sensitivity. Nevertheless, in terms of mechanical, volumetric, and economic properties, the suggested post-mix treatment was comparable to HMA. The findings point to the need to adopt CBEM post-heating approaches, particularly the MW treatment procedure.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1201 Architecture; 1202 Building; 1203 Design Practice and Management
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Divisions: Engineering
Publisher: MDPI AG
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 20 Mar 2023 10:51
Last Modified: 20 Mar 2023 11:00
DOI or ID number: 10.3390/buildings13020414
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/19133
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