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AIS data-driven ship trajectory prediction modelling and analysis based on machine learning and deep learning methods

Li, H, Jiao, H and Yang, Z (2023) AIS data-driven ship trajectory prediction modelling and analysis based on machine learning and deep learning methods. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 175. p. 103152. ISSN 1366-5545

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Maritime transport faces new safety challenges in an increasingly complex traffic environment caused by large-scale and high-speed ships, particularly with the introduction of intelligent and autonomous ships. It is evident that Automatic Identification System (AIS) data-driven ship trajectory prediction can effectively aid in identifying abnormal ship behaviours and reducing maritime risks such as collision, stranding, and contact. Furthermore, trajectory prediction is widely recognised as one of the critical technologies for realising safe autonomous navigation. The prediction methods and their performance are the key factors for future safe and automatic shipping. Currently, ship trajectory prediction lacks the real performance measurement and analysis of different algorithms, including classical machine learning and emerging deep learning methods. This paper aims to systematically analyse the performance of ship trajectory prediction methods and pioneer experimental tests to reveal their advantages and disadvantages as well as fitness in different scenarios involving complicated systems. To do so, five machine learning methods (i.e., Kalman Filter (KF), Support Vector Progression (SVR), Back Propagation network (BP), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), and Random Forest (RF)) and seven deep learning methods (i.e., Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Gate Recurrent Unit (GRU), Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM), Sequence to Sequence (Seq2seq), Bi-directional Gate Recurrent Unit (Bi-GRU), and Transformer) are first extracted from the state-of-the-art literature review and then employed to implement the trajectory prediction and compare their prediction performance in the real world. Three AIS datasets are collected from the waters of representative traffic features, including a normal channel (i.e., the Chengshan Jiao Promontory), complex traffic (i.e., the Zhoushan Archipelago), and a port area (i.e., Caofeidian port). They are selected to test and analyse the performance of all twelve methods based on six evaluation indexes and explore the characteristics and effectiveness of the twelve trajectory prediction methods in detail. The experimental results provide a novel perspective, comparison, and benchmark for ship trajectory prediction research, which not only demonstrates the fitness of each method in different maritime traffic scenarios, but also makes significant contributions to maritime safety and autonomous shipping development.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0102 Applied Mathematics; 0103 Numerical and Computational Mathematics; 1507 Transportation and Freight Services; Logistics & Transportation
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HE Transportation and Communications
T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
V Naval Science > VM Naval architecture. Shipbuilding. Marine engineering
Divisions: Engineering
Publisher: Elsevier
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 29 Nov 2023 14:28
Last Modified: 29 Nov 2023 14:30
DOI or ID number: 10.1016/j.tre.2023.103152
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/21975
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