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Arbitrary Modulation of Average Dwell Time in Discrete-Time Markov Chains based on Tunneling Magnetoresistance Effect

Yuan, X, Jian, J, Chai, Z, Wei, H, Zhou, X, Wen, Y, Liu, Y, Yan, W, He, Y, Zhang, JF, Zhang, W and Min, T (2024) Arbitrary Modulation of Average Dwell Time in Discrete-Time Markov Chains based on Tunneling Magnetoresistance Effect. IEEE Electron Device Letters. ISSN 0741-3106

EDL-2024-03-0460_accepted.pdf - Accepted Version

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Stochastic processes (SPs) are widely used in many real-world fields, especially AI algorithms and models. A discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC) is a fundamental SP where the probability of each event depends only on the state attained in the previous event. DTMC is extensively used in signal processing, information theory and speech processing, but the hardware generation of DTMC remains hindered by the difficulty in modulating the averaged dwell times (ADTs), i.e. the average time that the DTMC stays at one state. In this paper, we propose a two-step procedure to modulate the ADTs of a DTMC generated from one magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), without being limited by additional restrictions such as a fixed ratio between the ADTs, widening the applications scope of the MTJ-based DTMC. This method has been verified via mathematical derivation and electrical characterization. The generation throughput and power consumption can also be conveniently modulated. This procedure provides a new hardware solution for the generation of stochastic signal in semiconductor IC chips.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article has been accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies. This is the author's version which has not been fully edited and content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/LED.2024.3394711
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0906 Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Applied Physics
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Engineering
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 25 Apr 2024 09:17
Last Modified: 09 May 2024 12:45
DOI or ID number: 10.1109/LED.2024.3394711
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/23134
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