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Development of a New Ternary Blended Cementitious Binder Produced from Waste Materials for use in Soft Soil Stabilisation

Jafer, HM, Atherton, W, Sadique, MM, Ruddock, FM and Loffill, E (2017) Development of a New Ternary Blended Cementitious Binder Produced from Waste Materials for use in Soft Soil Stabilisation. Journal of Cleaner Production. ISSN 0959-6526

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Soil stabilisation using traditional binders such as Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), has a serious negative environmental impact, specifically carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions as a result of the manufacture of OPC. Because of this, the use of sustainable binders has become a critical issue to help reduce cement production through the use of by-product materials. This research seeks to develop a new ternary blended cementitious binder (TBCB) to replace cement for soft soil stabilisation. Different ternary mixtures containing wastes i.e., high calcium fly ash (HCFA), palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and rice husk ash (RHA) along with flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) gypsum used as a sulphate activator and grinding agent, were examined. The results illustrate that ternary mixtures improved the engineering and mechanical properties of stabilised soil. The results indicated that the plasticity index (PI) was reduced from 20.2 to 13.0 and the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) increased after 28 days of curing from 202kPa to 944kPa using the optimum non-FGD activated mixture. FGD contributed significantly by increasing the UCS to 1464kPa at 180 days of curing, which surpassed that for the reference cement (1450kPa), and by improving the soil consistency limits; where the PI decreased to 11.7 using TBCB compared with 14.5 for the soil treated with the reference cement. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed substantial changes in the diffraction patterns and microstructure components of the TBCB paste over the curing period, confirming the formation of cementitious products. A solid, coherent and compacted structure was achieved after treatment with TBCB as evidenced by the formation of C-S-H, CH and ettringite.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0907 Environmental Engineering, 0910 Manufacturing Engineering, 0915 Interdisciplinary Engineering
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TE Highway engineering. Roads and pavements
Divisions: Civil Engineering (merged with Built Env 10 Aug 20)
Publisher: Elsevier
Date Deposited: 02 Nov 2017 11:43
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2021 11:03
DOI or Identification number: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.10.233
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/7467

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