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ENERGY-EFFICIENT ROUTING ALGORITHMS FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Touray, B (2013) ENERGY-EFFICIENT ROUTING ALGORITHMS FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

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Abstract

A wireless sensor network (WSN) is made of tiny sensor nodes usually deployed in high density within a targeted area to monitor a phenomenon of interest such as temperature, vibration or humidity. The WSNs can be employed in various applications (e.g., Structural monitoring, agriculture, environment monitoring, machine health monitoring, military, and health). For each application area there are different technical issues and remedies. Various challenges need to be considered while setting up a WSN, including limited computing, memory and energy resources, wireless channel errors and network scalability. One way of addressing these problems is by implementing a routing protocol that efficiently uses these limited resources and hence reduces errors, improves scalability and increases the network lifetime. The topology of any network is important and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are no exception. In order to effectively model an energy-efficient routing algorithm, the topology of the WSN must be factored in. However, little work has been done on routing for WSNs with regular patterned topologies, except for the shortest path first (SPF) routing algorithms. The issue with the SPF algorithm is that it requires global location information of the nodes from the sensor network, which proves to be a drain on the network resources. In this thesis a novel algorithm namely, BRALB (Biased Random Algorithm for Load Balancing) is proposed to overcome the issues faced in routing data within WSNs with regular topologies such as square-base topology and triangle-based topology. It is based on random walk and probability. The proposed algorithm uses probability theory to build a repository of information containing the estimate of energy resources in each node, in order to route packets based on the energy resources in each node and thus does not require any global information from the network. It is shown in this thesis by statistical analysis and simulations that BRALB uses the same energy as the shortest path first routing as long as the data packets are comparable in size to the inquiry packets used between neighbours. It is also shown to balance the load (i.e. the packets to be sent) efficiently among the nodes in the network. In most of the WSN applications the messages sent to the base station are very small in size. Therefore BRALB is viable and can be used in sensor networks employed in such applications. However, one of the constraints of BRALB is that it is not very scalable; this is a genuine concern as most WSNs deployment is large scale.In order to remedy this problem, C-BRALB (Clustered Biased Random Algorithm for Load Balancing) has been proposed as an extension of BRALB with clustering mechanism. The same clustering technique used in Improved Directed Diffusion (IDD) has been adopted for C-BRALB. The routing mechanism in C-BRALB is based on energy biased random walk. This algorithm also does not require any global information apart from the initial flooding initiated by the sink to create the clusters. It uses probability theory to acquire all the information it needs to route packets based on energy resources in each cluster head node. It is shown in this thesis by using both simulations and statistical analysis that C-BRALB is an efficient routing algorithm in applications where the message to be sent is comparable to the inquiry message among the neighbours. It is also shown to balance the load (i.e. the packets to be sent) among the neighbouring cluster head nodes.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: biased random walk, routing algorithm, clustering, energy efficient, shortest path first, wireless sensor network.
Subjects: T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering
Divisions: Electronics and Electrical Engineering
Date Deposited: 24 Oct 2016 15:01
Last Modified: 24 Oct 2016 15:01
Supervisors: Johnson, Princy and Levi, Emil and Randles, Martin
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/4352

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