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Online Electromagnetic Wave Monitoring System for Petroleum Industry Applications

Alhajeri, S H H (2010) Online Electromagnetic Wave Monitoring System for Petroleum Industry Applications. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

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Abstract

The general demand for automating industrial processes in the oil industry has increased rapidly in parallel with sensors and their underlying technology. Since the early 1980s, the particular problem, which has been representing the extremes in complexity in the oil industry, is the measurement of multiphase flow components, the mixing ratio of oil, water, and gas flowing in a pipeline. Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can provide an attractive solution, because microwave signals can penetrate most materials allowing the measurement to be representative for the cross section of the pipeline. In this thesis, EM wave sensors operating at microwave frequencies are developed for measuring multiphase flow components in a pipeline. These sensors are based on cylindrical cavity, and they use the resonant frequencies related to changes of permittivity to detect and measure (oil, gas, and water) components flowing in a pipeline. Special emphasis has been given to three main design principles. The principle of designing a completely non intrusive sensor, the choice of resonance mode to achieve the best measurement accuracy, and the possibility of designing a new software application to allow online implementation of the sensors. The first principle is shown to allow sensorswith completely non intrusive structures to be designed. The two fundamental modes in cylindrical cavity resonators were therefore analysed. A sensor for measuring the mixture ratio of oil and water flowing in a pipeline is developed. We called it a EM wave (EMW2) for measuring two phase. Both the experiment results and the HFSS results are compared and analysed. A sensor for measuring multiphase flow (oil, gas, and water mixtures) in a pipeline in real time is developed. We called it a EW wave (EMW3) sensor for multiphase fractions measurement. The emphasis is on the measurement accuracy with the desired resonant frequency mode, and the possibility of designing a software programme to explore the functionality of the sensor for online measurement. The accuracy of the sensor measurements is achieved by comparing and analyzing the HFSS simulated results and experimental results. A sensor suitable for measuring online the components of mixtures of (hydrocarbons, gas, and water) flowing in a pipeline is developed based on the EMW3 sensor. We called it a EM Wave monitoring and control system. Consequently, online controlling and monitoring, on the other hand, are achieved and the online results are shown. Finally, the research is concluded and future works is discussed.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering
Divisions: General Engineering Research Institute
Date Deposited: 14 Mar 2017 12:24
Last Modified: 14 Mar 2017 12:24
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/5939

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