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Experimental Testing and Numerical Investigation of Materials with Embedded Systems during Indentation and Complex Loading Conditions

Li, S (2018) Experimental Testing and Numerical Investigation of Materials with Embedded Systems during Indentation and Complex Loading Conditions. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

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In this work, parametric FE (Finite Element) modelling has been developed and used to study the deformation of soft materials with different embedded systems under indentation and more complex conditions. The deformation of a soft material with an embedded stiffer layer under cylindrical flat indenter was investigated through FE modelling. A practical approach in modelling embedded system is evaluated and presented. The FE results are correlated with an analytical solution for homogenous materials and results from a mathematical approach for embedded systems in a half space. The influence of auxeticity on the indentation stiffness ratio and the de-formation of the embedded system under different conditions (indenter size, thickness and embedment depth of the embedded layer) was established and key mechanisms of the Poisson’s ratio effect are highlighted. The results show that the auxeticity of the matrix has a direct influence on the indentation stiffness of the system with an embedded layer. The enhancement of indentation resistance due to embedment increases, as the matrix Poisson’s ratio is decreased to zero and to negative values. The indentation stiffness could be increased by over 30% with a thin inextensible shell on top of a negative Poisson’s ratio matrix. The deformation of the embedded layer is found to be significantly influenced by the auxeticity of the matrix. Selected case studies show that the modelling approach developed is effective in simulating piezoelectrical sensors, and force sensitive resistor, as well as investigating the deformation and embedded auxetic meshes. A full scale parametric FE foot model is developed to simulate the deformation of the human foot under different conditions including soles with embedded shells and negative Poisson’s ratio. The models used a full bone structure and effective embedded structure method to increase the modelling efficiency. A hexahedral dominated meshing scheme was applied on the surface of the foot bones and skin. An explicit solver (Abaqus/Explicit) was used to simulate the transient landing process. Navicular drop tests have been performed and the displacement of the Navicular bone is measured using a 3D image analysing system. The experimental results show a good agreement with the numerical models and published data. The detailed deformation of the Navicular bone and factors affecting the Navicular bone displacement and measurement is discussed. The stress level and rate of stress increase in the Metatarsals and the injury risk in the foot between forefoot strike (FS) and rearfoot (RS) is evaluated and discussed. A detailed full parametric FE foot model is developed and validated. The deformation and internal energy of the foot and stresses in the metatarsals are comparatively investigated. The results for forefoot strike tests showed an overall higher average stress level in the metatarsals during the entire landing cycle than that for rearfoot strike. The increased rate of the metatarsal stress from the 0.5 body weight (BW) to 2 BW load point is 30.76% for forefoot strike and 21.39% for rearfoot strike. The maximum rate of stress increase among the five metatarsals is observed on the 1st metatarsal in both landing modes. The results indicate that high stress level during forefoot landing phase may increase potential of metatarsal injuries. The FE was used to evaluate the effect of embedded shell and auxetic materials on the foot-shoe sole interaction influencing both the contact area and the pressure. The work suggests that application of the auxetic matrix with embedded shell can reinforce the indentation resistance without changing the elastic modulus of the material which can optimise the wearing experience as well as providing enough support for wearers. . Potential approaches of using auxetic structures and randomly distributed 2D inclusion embedded in a soft matrix for footwear application is discussed. The design and modelling of foot prosthetic, which resembles the human foot structure with a rigid structure embedded in soft matrix is also presented and discussed.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Embedded Systems; Finite Element; Indentation; Foot Modelling
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Divisions: Maritime and Mechanical Engineering
Date Deposited: 20 Jul 2018 09:36
Last Modified: 20 Jul 2018 09:36
Supervisors: Ren, J, Lake, M and Gu, Y
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/8981

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