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Chemical features of the photosensitizers new methylene blue N and S137 influence their subcellular localization and photoinactivation efficiency in Candida albicans.

Rodrigues, GB, Brancini, GTP, Uyemura, SA, Bachmann, L, Wainwright, M and Braga, GUL (2020) Chemical features of the photosensitizers new methylene blue N and S137 influence their subcellular localization and photoinactivation efficiency in Candida albicans. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 209. ISSN 1011-1344

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Abstract

Antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) has emerged as an effective therapy against pathogenic fungi with both acquired and intrinsic resistance to commonly used antifungal agents. Success of APDT depends on the availability of effective photosensitizers capable of acting on different fungal structures and species. Among the phenothiazinium dyes tested as photoantifungals, new methylene blue N (NMBN) and the novel pentacyclic compound S137 are the most efficient. In the present study we compared the effects of APDT with NMBN and S137 on the survival of Candida albicans and employed a set of fluorescent probes (propidium iodide, FUN-1, JC-1, DHR-123 and DHE) together with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry to evaluate the effects of these two chemically diverse photosensitizers on cell membrane permeability, metabolism and redox status, and mitochondrial activity. Taken together, our results indicate that, due to chemical features resulting in different lipophilicity, NMBN and S137 localize to distinct subcellular structures and hence inactivate C. albicans cells via different mechanisms. S137 localizes mostly to the cell membrane and, upon light exposure, photo-oxidizes membrane lipids. NMBN readily localizes to mitochondria and exerts its photodynamic effects there, which was observed to be a less effective way to achieve cell death at lower light fluences.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0299 Other Physical Sciences, 0601 Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Divisions: Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences
Publisher: Elsevier
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 08 Jul 2020 10:52
Last Modified: 08 Jul 2020 11:00
DOI or Identification number: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111942
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/13270

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