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Control of a nine-phase symmetrical PMSM with reduced rare earth material

Slunjski, M (2021) Control of a nine-phase symmetrical PMSM with reduced rare earth material. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

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The rising demand for high-power fault-tolerant applications such as wind generators and electric vehicles, alongside the desire to achieve better performance, have directed the interests of many research centres around the world towards electric drive configurations comprising AC machines with more than three stator phases. These so-called multiphase machines have become well recognized as an attractive alternative to the conventional three-phase machines and are used when the three-phase counterpart cannot provide a drive system with the desired performance. The Thesis examines advanced control possibilities for multiphase surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs). Although it is well-known that permanent magnet machines are today the first choice in many applications and that their market is anticipated to catch up with the induction machines market in the near future, the main drawbacks of this machine type are the relatively high capital costs, the security of magnet supply and the environmental costs associated with the rear-earth magnet materials used in the rotor construction. This has motivated researchers to investigate methods to reduce the amount of rare earth material used in the construction of these machines. If the amount of permanent magnet material is reduced, this will inevitably result in a machine which produces lower electromagnetic tor que. On the other hand, the additional degrees of freedom, present in multiphase systems, can be exploited to inject, into the stator windings, harmonic current(s) to enhance the developed torque. This work analyses a new nine-phase symmetrical PMSM with two surface mounted magnet poles on the rotor with a shortened span. This simple design produces a highly non-sinusoidal back-electromotive force (back-EMF) comprising high third and fifth harmonic components. It is shown that these harmonic components can be utilised to boost the torque to near the value obtainable with full span magnets, provided a suitable control system is developed. The developed control algorithm is based on the well-known vector space decomposition (VSD) and classic field-oriented control methods. To test the developed control algorithm, phase domain machine model is presented first, for both sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal back-EMF distributions. To transform variables from one reference frame to another, the VSD and rotational transformations are used. The optimal ratios between fundamental and other harmonic current components are derived using the maximal torque-per-Ampere (MTPA) theory. It is shown that, by using optimal current injection, the electromagnetic torque can be improved by 36% with third harmonic only, and, up to 45% with a combination of the fundamental, the third and the fifth harmonics. Simulation results are validated in finite element method software and afterwards verified experimentally using an experimental prototype. Control of the PMSM is next expanded with position sensor fault-tolerant capability. For this purpose, the same EMF spectrum is used. When harmonic current elimination is performed in x-y subspace, remaining hth harmonic order back-EMF can be efficiently used for position angle and speed estimation. For the estimation purpose, phase-locked-loop method is employed. With estimated position/speed, a new control algorithm is devised, which combines control in two auxiliary subspaces with the control of the first plane. The third harmonic is, in combination with the fifth, used for the torque boost prior to the fault, while afterwards, the fifth EMF harmonic enables position estimation for position-sensorless control. Hence, previously stated maximal torque improvement is preserved until position sensor fault is detected, while afterwards machine continues to operate in position-sensorless mode still with partial enhancement of the torque. Control is verified experimentally. Finally, operation in the flux-weakening region is investigated. Because finding sets of multiple harmonic current references which maximize torque by taking into account voltage and current limits leads to a difficult problem to formulate, which is often impossible to solve analytically, the work presented here builds on (offline) numerical optimisation procedure. To obtain best performance, harmonics up to the (and including) fifth are considered. Limitation of voltage is achieved by comparing measured phase-to-phase voltage with maximal dc-link voltage, while thermal (RMS) constraint and inverter switch (peak) current constraint are taken into account by limiting the current. In such scenario, maximal reachable speed is much higher than the base speed, while respecting at the same time both machine and inverter constraints.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: multiphase machines; surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines; non-sinusoidal back-electromotive force; advanced field-oriented control methods; optimal harmonic current injection for torque enhancement; back-EMF based position-sensorless control; flux-weakening control
Subjects: T Technology > T Technology (General)
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering
Divisions: Engineering
Date Deposited: 31 Mar 2021 08:52
Last Modified: 14 Dec 2022 12:39
DOI or ID number: 10.24377/LJMU.t.00014732
Supervisors: Jones, M and Levi, E
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/14732
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