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Low luminosity Type II supernovae - IV. SN 2020cxd and SN 2021aai, at the edges of the sub-luminous supernovae class

Valerin, G, Pumo, ML, Pastorello, A, Reguitti, A, Elias-Rosa, N, Gútierrez, CP, Kankare, E, Fraser, M, Mazzali, PA, Howell, DA, Kotak, R, Galbany, L, Williams, SC, Cai, YZ, Salmaso, I, Pinter, V, Müller-Bravo, TE, Burke, J, Gonzalez, EP, Hiramatsu, D , McCully, C, Newsome, M and Pellegrino, C (2022) Low luminosity Type II supernovae - IV. SN 2020cxd and SN 2021aai, at the edges of the sub-luminous supernovae class. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 513 (4). pp. 4983-4999. ISSN 0035-8711

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Photometric and spectroscopic data for two Low Luminosity Type IIP Supernovae (LL SNe IIP) 2020cxd and 2021aai are presented. SN 2020cxd was discovered 2 d after explosion at an absolute magnitude of Mr = -14.02 ± 0.21 mag, subsequently settling on a plateau which lasts for ∼120 d. Through the luminosity of the late light curve tail, we infer a synthesized 56Ni mass of (1.8 ± 0.5) × 10-3 M⊙. During the early evolutionary phases, optical spectra show a blue continuum (T >8000 K) with broad Balmer lines displaying a P Cygni profile, while at later phases, Ca ii, Fe ii, Sc ii, and Ba ii lines dominate the spectra. Hydrodynamical modelling of the observables yields R ~ 575 R⊙ for the progenitor star, with Mej = 7.5 M⊙ and E ~ 0.097 foe emitted during the explosion. This low-energy event originating from a low-mass progenitor star is compatible with both the explosion of a red supergiant (RSG) star and with an Electron Capture Supernova arising from a super asymptotic giant branch star. SN 2021aai reaches a maximum luminosity of Mr = -16.57 ± 0.23 mag (correcting for AV = 1.92 mag), at the end of its remarkably long plateau (∼140 d). The estimated 56Ni mass is (1.4 ± 0.5) × 10-2 M⊙. The expansion velocities are compatible with those of other LL SNe IIP (few 103 km s-1). The physical parameters obtained through hydrodynamical modelling are R ~575 R⊙, Mej = 15.5 M⊙, and E = 0.4 foe. SN 2021aai is therefore interpreted as the explosion of an RSG, with properties that bridge the class of LL SNe IIP with standard SN IIP events.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2022 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0201 Astronomical and Space Sciences; Astronomy & Astrophysics
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions: Astrophysics Research Institute
Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 01 Nov 2022 11:10
Last Modified: 01 Nov 2022 11:15
DOI or ID number: 10.1093/mnras/stac1182
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/17980
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