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Biomedical Amplifiers Design Based on Pseudo-resistors: A Review

AbuShawish, I, Mahmoud, S, Majzoub, S and Hussain, A (2023) Biomedical Amplifiers Design Based on Pseudo-resistors: A Review. IEEE Sensors Journal, 23 (14). pp. 15225-15238. ISSN 1530-437X

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The demand for efficient, robust, and cost-effective Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) systems continues to increase in the last decade. One of the fundamental design blocks in such systems is the signal amplification and filtering. Generally, biomedical signals are characterized by low amplitude and low frequency in a noisy environment. Therefore they need to be amplified and filtered before passing the signal to the next processing stage. In this review paper, a comprehensive survey is conducted in existing literature of two-stage biomedical amplifiers, focusing on the impact of the pseudo-resistor non-linearity on the system’s performance. First, the common categories of pseudo-resistors are presented and discussed. Then, different amplifier designs, targeted for biomedical applications, are identified and studied considering the influence of the pseudo-resistors on the performance. A special focus was given to the impact of the Process, Voltage, and Temperature variations where experiments are conducted to test the performance under different variation tests. Different two-stage biomedical amplifiers, used in bio-detection systems, with programmable gain and bandwidth features based on pseudo-resistors are implemented. The designs are realized and simulated using LTspice utilizing 90nm process technology, BSIM4, version 4.3, level 54.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2023 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0205 Optical Physics; 0906 Electrical and Electronic Engineering; 0913 Mechanical Engineering; Analytical Chemistry
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Computer Science & Mathematics
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
SWORD Depositor: A Symplectic
Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2023 11:16
Last Modified: 25 Jul 2023 14:00
DOI or ID number: 10.1109/jsen.2023.3280668
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/19985
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