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The Role of Vitamin D in Skeletal Muscle Function and Regeneration

Owens, DJ (2015) The Role of Vitamin D in Skeletal Muscle Function and Regeneration. Doctoral thesis, Liverpool John Moores University.

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Skeletal muscle is a direct target for the group of seco-steroids collectively termed Vitamin D. Skeletal muscle expresses both CYP27A1 and CYP27B1 encoding for the hydroxylases required to convert Vitamin D to 25[OH]D and subsequently the bioactive 1α-25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α-25[OH]2D3) (Girgis et al., 2014b). Crucially, the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is also present in skeletal muscle (Srikuea, Zhang, Park-Sarge, & Esser, 2012) and upon exposure, binds to its ligand 1α-25[OH]2D3 and initiates genomic and non-genomic rapid signalling responses. At present there is a global prevalence of low serum Vitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations due to a lack of sun exposure (the primary route for Vitamin D synthesis) as a function of latitude and/or an indoor lifestyle coupled with few dietary sources of Vitamin D (Chen et al., 2007). Accumulating data are now suggestive that low 25[OH]D may be associated with perturbations in contractile activity and the regeneration of human skeletal muscle (Owens, Fraser, & Close, 2014), although a definitive causal relationship is yet to be established. Therefore, this thesis aimed to establish a more precise role for Vitamin D in human skeletal muscle function and regeneration. There were four overarching aims:

1.Explore the role of Vitamin D in human skeletal muscle contractile properties in humans in vivo.
2.Identify the role of Vitamin D in human skeletal muscle contractile properties ex vivo.
3.Investigate the role of Vitamin D in skeletal muscle regeneration following eccentric exercise induced muscle damage in vivo.
4.Elucidate cellular mechanisms of the muscle regeneration process that are responsive to Vitamin D in vitro.

The main findings from this work imply that serum 25[OH]D concentrations across a broad range from 18->100 nmol.L-1 do not affect skeletal muscle contractile properties. Conversely elevating serum 25[OH]D from <50 nmol.L-1 to >75 nmol.L-1 resulted in significant improvements in the recovery of maximal voluntary contraction force following a bout of eccentric exercise. Implementing an in vitro model of muscle regeneration also identified potential cellular mechanisms for these observations: Muscle derived cells treated with a total amount of 10 nmol 1α-25[OH]2D3 following a mechanical scrape improved migration dynamics and fusion capability of skeletal muscle derived cells.

Taken together, low Vitamin D concentrations are highly prevalent but can be easily corrected with supplementation of Vitamin D3. This may have the advantage of optimising the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle amongst other health benefits previously characterised by others.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Vitamin D, Muscle, Regeneration, Remodelling
Subjects: Q Science > QP Physiology
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Divisions: Sport & Exercise Sciences
Date Deposited: 04 Nov 2016 11:54
Last Modified: 03 Sep 2021 23:26
DOI or ID number: 10.24377/LJMU.t.00004391
Supervisors: Close, G and Morton, J
URI: https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/4391
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