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Fear appeals prior to a high-stakes examination can have a positive or negative impact on engagement depending on how the message is appraised

Putwain, DW and Nicholson, LJ and Nakhla, G and Reece, M and Porter, B and Liversidge, A (2016) Fear appeals prior to a high-stakes examination can have a positive or negative impact on engagement depending on how the message is appraised. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 44-45. pp. 21-31. ISSN 0361-476X

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Abstract

Previous studies have shown that teachers may use messages that focus on the importance of avoiding failure (fear appeals) prior to high-stakes examinations as a motivational tactic. The aim of this study was to examine whether fear appeals, and their appraisal as challenging or threatening, impacted on student engagement. Data were collected from 1373 students, clustered in 46 classes, and 81 teachers responsible for instruction in those classes, prior to a high-stakes mathematics secondary school exit examination. Data were analyzed in a multilevel structural equation model. The appraisal of fear appeals as challenging leads to greater student engagement and as threatening to lower student engagement. The impact of fear appeals on engagement was mediated by challenge and threat appraisals. The effectiveness of fear appeals as a motivational strategy depends on how they are interpreted by students. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1701 Psychology
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
L Education > L Education (General)
Divisions: School of Education
Publisher: Elsevier
Date Deposited: 21 Apr 2016 11:16
Last Modified: 06 Oct 2016 10:53
DOI or Identification number: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.12.001
URI: http://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/3495

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